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In the North of the Netherlands, by the border with Germany, the Groningen region has historically been an important economic hub, but recent crises have led to increasing unemployment. 

In 1959, the largest natural gas field in Europe and one of the largest in the world, the Groningen gas field, was discovered. Its subsequent extraction became central to the energy supply in the Netherlands. 

The gas extraction process resulted in subsidence, and from 1991 onwards, it was accompanied by increasingly frequent earthquakes. In 2014, it was decided to phase out gas extraction and the Groningen gas field is expected to be closed between 2025 and 2028. 

The whole economic value-chain of the area is undergoing deep structural changes. For instance, the Dutch government and Just Transition Fund support investments in strategic sectors, re-skilling and relocation of gas labour to other emerging activities. 

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